Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by increased blood sugar levels, which the body is unable to bring back to normal. There are, primarily, three types of diabetes: diabetes of type 1, typical of younger age and characterized by reduced or absent insulin production; diabetes type 2, the most common and arises in obese or overweight adults and elderly individuals and is characterized by the body’s reduced ability to use the insulin produced; and finally, diabetes gestational, which can occur in pregnant women and generally disappears after delivery, but can be a risk factor for the future onset of type 2 diabetes.

If not corrected, elevated blood levels can lead to permanent damage to the kidneys, retina, heart, and peripheral nerves. Diabetes, whatever type it is, can only be controlled by diet, exercise exercise and, if necessary, drug therapy. The diet that must be followed in these cases is not particularly difficult or restrictive, however, it must be tailored to the patient’s habits and must pay particular attention to carbohydrate intake, which should come mainly from foods rich in complex carbohydrates (e.g., pasta, bread, cereals…); in addition, it should be rich in fiber, so rich in vegetables, fruits, legumes and whole grains, varied and balanced.

Currently, only type 2 diabetes is preventable, and this is only possible by following a correct and active lifestyle.

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